how many ways to reduce housing footprint?
Countless. Apartment or house? Some general ideas:
- seal windows & doors to avoid drafts - massive heat loss so more heating
- double glazed windows; thermally blocked frames (see other post here)
- insulation: if you don't insulate the whole envelope (walls, windows, doors, roof) properly it’s a waste of money
- shading windows to reduce heat gain in summer; good design allows the sun to heat the house in winter - careful what system you use
- switch off at power point; stand-by can be 3-7% of your bill
- (ceiling) fans instead of air-conditioning: cheaper to buy & run ~10% of energy use
- solar hot water: vacuum collector & separate tank - everything else is waste of money & will cause headaches
- DON’T replace appliances if they still work properly; even the most efficient ones can’t save that much to off-set their production/transport footprint - only replace when faulty - get old ones recycled/disposed (see council) as lots of hazardous materials
Hope it helps a bit.